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Company report, featuring a PESTLE, Porters Five Forces, 5C, MOST, CATWOE and SWOT analysis


This report on Alcoa is part of our examination of the 10,000 largest companies in the world. We produce and refresh it at an accelerated rate to guarantee the most current data available.

Premium members can access this study on Alcoa, which includes a SWOT analysis, PESTLE, 5C analysis, CATWOE, Porters Five Forces, MOST analysis, and a myriad of additional high value sections, for a fee.

We identify possibilities for new products and/or services and forecast future market trends, apart from the sections that are focused on analysis. Additionally, we make predictions about the potential synergies between Alcoa and other organisations.

Company Description

Alcoa is an American-based industrial manufacturing company headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1888, Alcoa is one of the world's leading producers of aluminum and related products and services, ranging from primary aluminum production to fabricated aluminum, to alumina and chemical products. Alcoa serves a wide range of markets, including aerospace, automotive, building and construction, defence and commercial transportation, oil and gas, packaging, and consumer goods.

Industry Overview

Alcoa is a global leader in the aluminum industry, with a total market size of $136.2 billion in US Dollars. It employs more than 59,000 people in 31 countries around the world, primarily in Europe and North America. Alcoa has been producing aluminum since 1888 and has factories in more than 40 countries. The company is a major supplier of aluminum to the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as the construction and packaging industries.

Industry Classification

In terms of formal classification, Platform Executive has tagged Alcoa as a business operating within the Aluminium industry.

Table of Contents

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Intellectual Property

Some of the Patents granted to, or relevant to the organisation include the following:

Patent Title: Method for Joining Aluminum Alloys
Patent ID: 10,756,631
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,630
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Producing Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,629
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,628
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,627
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Producing Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,626
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,625
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,624
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,623
Date: 6/30/2020

Patent Title: Method for Forming Aluminum Alloy Sheets
Patent ID: 10,756,622
Date: 6/30/2020

Major Products & Services

The main products and/or services commercialised by this business include the following:

  • Aluminum products
  • Bauxite mining
  • Alumina refining
  • Fabricated aluminum products
  • Automotive components
  • Aerospace components
  • Industrial gas turbines
  • Fastening systems
  • Building and construction systems
  • Packaging products

Key Competitors

We have identified the following organisations as being key competitors:

  • Norsk Hydro ASA
  • Rio Tinto Plc
  • United Company Rusal Plc
  • Century Aluminum Company
  • BHP Billiton Limited
  • Arconic Inc
  • China Hongqiao Group Limited
  • Novelis Inc
  • Aluminum Corporation of China Limited
  • SMZ JSC (Kazakhmys Group)
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Key Stakeholders

Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have an interest in a business and/or are affected by its actions.

These stakeholders can have different requirements and expectations from the business, which must be taken into account when making decisions.

By understanding their stakeholders’ requirements, a business can make informed decisions that benefit all involved.

Below is the list of internal and external stakeholders we have identified for this business:

1. Customers: Alcoa’s customers include major automobile, aerospace, and industrial companies.

2. Suppliers: Alcoa works with a wide range of suppliers, including those of raw materials, such as aluminum and bauxite, and those of services, such as transportation and logistics.

3. Employees: Alcoa employs people from a variety of backgrounds, including production, engineering, sales, and management.

4. Investors: Alcoa’s investors include shareholders, lenders, and bondholders.

5. Governments: Alcoa has to comply with a wide range of regulations and laws from different governments, including taxation and environmental regulations.

6. Communities: Alcoa has a responsibility to the communities in which it operates, from providing employment opportunities to supporting local initiatives.

Value Proposition

A value proposition explains the unique value and/or benefits that an organisation provides to its customers, partners, stakeholders and the overall market. It outlines what makes a company like Alcoa different from its competitors, along with what it can offer that key competitors cannot.

A corporate value proposition can be used with the competitive advantages section of this report in order to better understand Alcoa and its position within the marketplace.

Alcoa is a global leader in aluminum products and services. We provide customers with the best products and solutions to meet their needs in the most efficient and sustainable way possible. We also focus on sustainability, which is our focus on creating value for our shareholders, employees, and the communities in which we operate.

Competitive Advantages

Competitive advantages are unique attributes, strategies, resources, or capabilities that allow an organisation to outperform its competitors and achieve superior market position and profitability.

Competitive advantages for the business include the following:

Global Footprint: Alcoa has a global presence with operations in 30 countries across the Americas, Europe, and Asia. This extensive reach gives the company a competitive edge in the global market.

Innovation: Alcoa has long been a leader in innovation, developing new products and processes that help customers reduce costs and increase efficiency. This helps the company stay ahead of the competition.

Quality: Alcoa has a strong reputation for producing high-quality products. This helps the company to maintain its competitive advantage in the market.

Diversified Product Portfolio: Alcoa offers a wide range of products, from aluminum and aluminum alloys to aerospace materials and energy solutions. This helps the company tap into different markets and serve a variety of customers.

Financial Strength: Alcoa has a strong balance sheet and is well-positioned to take advantage of opportunities in the market. This gives the company a competitive edge and helps it remain profitable.

Customers & Cohorts

As part of this competitive intelligence study, we have identified the main customers of the organisation.

These include the following cohorts:

  • Automotive manufacturers
  • Aerospace manufacturers
  • Industrial equipment manufacturers
  • Heavy truck and trailer manufacturers
  • Appliance manufacturers
  • HVAC manufacturers
  • Construction companies
  • Electrical and electronics companies
  • Defense and government agencies
  • Marine and shipbuilding companies

Market Trends

Market trends can impact an organisation by influencing consumer behavior, altering supply and demand dynamics, and affecting the organisation's ability to remain competitive in the market.

As part of this study, we have identified a number of potential short-term to medium-term trends that could impact the organisation. These include the following:

Key Market Trends
Increasing Demand for Aluminum: Over the coming years, Alcoa is likely to be positively impacted by the increasing global demand for aluminum. This is due to the growing demand for aluminum in the automotive, aerospace, and packaging sectors, as well as its growing use in the construction industry. The increasing demand for aluminum will create opportunities for Alcoa to expand its operations and increase revenues.

Growing Global Economy: The increasing global wealth and economic growth will also be beneficial to Alcoa as more countries invest in infrastructure projects, such as bridges, buildings, and highways. These projects will require large amounts of aluminum, which will create more opportunities for Alcoa to expand its operations and increase its revenues.

Increasing Automation: The increasing automation of aluminum production processes is likely to have a positive impact on Alcoa. Automation will reduce production costs, allowing Alcoa to remain competitive in the global market. Additionally, automation will help increase productivity, allowing Alcoa to better meet the growing global demand for aluminum.

Growing Renewable Energy Sector: The increasing demand for renewable energy sources such as wind and solar will also have a positive effect on Alcoa. Aluminum is a key component of solar and wind turbines, and the increasing demand for renewable energy will create more opportunities for Alcoa to expand its operations and increase its revenues.

Key Performance Indicators

Key Performance Indicators

Below is a list of KPI's that we have identified as being strategically relevant to this organisation:

Financials (BETA)

The key financials for Alcoa include income statements, which can be found in their annual reports. These financial statements provide information on the organisation's financial performance and health, including revenue, expenses, and profits. This information, along with other indicators are used by investors, analysts and other stakeholders to evaluate the company's performance and future prospects.

Where a financial does not match, we have included those of the parent company (if a listed entity). If the financials are missing please contact us and we will prioritise the update.

Key Financials

Key Personnel

Income Statement

[eod_financials target="AA.US" id="10329343" preset="Income Statement" years="2018-2023"]


Top-level corporate stats and financial highlights for the listed entity, include:

Share Performance

Below is the current (EOD) share performance for the company, or its listed parent:

Potential Products/Services

As part of this study we have attempted to prognosticate potential products and/or services this organisation could develop in the short to medium-term.

Alcoa could create a consulting service to advise its customers on how to best use its products.

Alcoa could develop a software program to help customers design their products using aluminum.

Alcoa could offer custom manufacturing services to its customers to help them create the exact product they need.

Alcoa could develop an online store to sell its products and services directly to customers.

Alcoa could create a recycling program to help customers responsibly dispose of their aluminum products.

Alcoa could offer educational programs and seminars to help customers learn about aluminum and its uses.

Alcoa could create a design-assistance program to help customers create unique products using aluminum.

Alcoa could develop a line of aluminum-based building materials for use in construction and home renovations.

Potential Synergies

Using our product and portfolio-matching algorithm, we have determined that the following organisations have potential synergies with the company:

1. Rio Tinto
2. Vale
3. BHP Billiton
4. Norsk Hydro
5. ArcelorMittal
6. Posco
7. US Steel
8. Umicore
9. Sumitomo Metal Industries
10. Novelis

Porter's Five Forces

Created by Harvard Business School Professor Michael Porter in 1979, Porter's Five Forces model is designed to help analyse the particular attractiveness of an industry; evaluate investment options; and better assess the competitive environment.

The five forces are as follows:

  • Competitive rivalry
  • Supplier power
  • Buyer power
  • Threat of substitution
  • Threat of new entries
Porter's 5 forces for Alcoa are:

1. Threat of new entrants: LOW. Alcoa has a long history and has been in the aluminum industry for over 100 years. The company has a strong brand and reputation, and has HIGH barriers to entry.

2. Bargaining power of suppliers: MEDIUM. Alcoa has a few large suppliers, but there are also many small suppliers. The company has some negotiating power, but not a lot.

3. Bargaining power of buyers: HIGH. Alcoa has many buyers, and they are all large companies. The company has very little negotiating power.

4. Threat of substitute products: MEDIUM. There are other materials that can be used in place of aluminum, but aluminum has many unique properties that make it the preferred choice in many applications.

5. Competitive rivalry: HIGH. Alcoa is one of the largest aluminum producers in the world, but there are many other large companies in the industry. The competition is intense.

PESTLE Analysis

This PESTLE analysis is a strategic planning tool that assesses key external factors affecting the organisation, including the following:

  • Political
  • Economic
  • Social
  • Technological
  • Legal
  • Environmental

Each of these factors is analysed to determine their impact on the organisations strategy, objectives, and operations.

By utilising a PESTLE analysis, the organisation can make better decisions and develop strategies to address potential risks and opportunities.

PESTLE Analysis

CATWOE Analysis


The CATWOE analysis is used to investigate each stakeholders perspectives in order to enable the business to make informed decisions.

The CATWOE analysis is a problem-solving tool consisting of six elements:

  • Customers
  • Actors
  • Transformation process
  • World view
  • Owners
  • Environmental constraints

We view the CATWOE as being most useful when used in conjunction with other problem-solving tools such as a SWOT analysis.

Customers: Alcoa’s customers include companies that use aluminum in their products, from auto parts manufacturers to aerospace companies. Alcoa’s customers rely on them for quality aluminum products and services.

Actors: Alcoa’s actors include their employees, executives, and investors, as well as their suppliers and partners.

Transformation process: Alcoa’s transformation process begins with the mining and refining of aluminum ore, followed by the production of aluminum products and their sale to customers.

World view: Alcoa’s world view is one of innovation and sustainability. They strive to provide the best possible products and services to their customers while also considering the environmental impacts of their operations.

Owners: Alcoa is owned by shareholders and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange.

Environmental constraints: Alcoa is subject to various environmental regulations, both local and global. They must adhere to these regulations in order to remain within legal and ethical boundaries. Furthermore, they must consider the environmental impacts of their operations, both in terms of emissions and resource consumption.

SWOT Analysis

This SWOT analysis is a strategic planning tool used to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the Alcoa business.

When creating this SWOT the team at Platform Executive have taken into consideration the corporate strategy; brand; key financials; the competitive landscape; along with the products and/or services offered.

To offer increased context for future innovation and product development we also consider the historical context for the business and industry; and perceived direction of travel.

Upon researching the company, we have uncovered a number of strategic and operational strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

SWOT Analysis


Below is a list of the strengths we have identified for the business:

1. Alcoa is one of the largest aluminum producers in the world with a production capacity of over 4.5 million metric tons per year.

2. Alcoa has a diversified product portfolio which includes aluminum sheet, plate, foil, extrusions, and engineered products.

3. Alcoa has a strong global presence with operations in over 30 countries.

4. Alcoa has a long history of operational excellence and is a leader in safety and environmental stewardship.


Below is a list of opportunities we have identified for the business:

1. Increase operational efficiency across all business units by leveraging emerging technologies. Alcoa can use automation and robotics to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and increase productivity.

2. Expand the customer base by targeting new markets and leveraging existing customer relationships. Alcoa can create new products that appeal to new demographics, or focus on existing customers who may need additional products and services.

3. Implement a comprehensive sustainability strategy to reduce carbon emissions, increase energy efficiency, and reduce the impact of its operations on the environment. Alcoa can strive to reduce its carbon footprint, increase the use of renewable energy sources, and promote sustainable practices within its operations.

4. Increase innovation and research and development efforts. Alcoa can invest in new technologies and processes to improve product quality and performance. It can also focus on developing new products and services to meet changing customer needs.


Below is a list of the weaknesses we have identified for the business:

1. Lack of focus on end-markets: Alcoa has historically been a commodity aluminum producer, selling into a variety of markets including construction, automotive, and packaging. However, in recent years, the company has shifted its focus to become a leading global supplier of value-added aluminum products, targeting the aerospace, automotive, and packaging markets. This shift has not been successful, and the company has been losing market share to competitors who are better able to meet the needs of end-markets.

2. High cost structure: Alcoa has one of the highest cost structures in the aluminum industry, due in part to its large legacy operations. The company has been working to reduce costs, but has been unsuccessful in achieving significant cost savings.

3. Weakness in key markets: Alcoa has been losing market share in its core markets of construction and automotive. The company has been losing market share to competitors who are better able to meet the needs of end-markets.

4. Dependence on Chinese market: Alcoa is heavily dependent on the Chinese market, which accounts for approximately one-third of its sales. The Chinese aluminum market is highly fragmented and competitive, and Alcoa has been losing market share to Chinese competitors.


Below is a list of the threats we have identified for the business:

1. Increasing Competition: Alcoa faces stiff competition from other aluminum companies, such as Norsk Hydro, Rio Tinto, and Rusal. These companies are able to produce aluminum at a lower cost, which could put Alcoa at a competitive disadvantage.

2. Rising Energy Costs: Alcoa is highly dependent on energy sources such as electricity and natural gas, and rising energy costs could significantly affect the company’s profitability.

3. Uncertain Global Markets: Alcoa operates in a global market with a wide range of customers, and volatility in these markets can have a significant impact on the company’s sales and profits.

4. Regulations: Alcoa is subject to a variety of environmental and safety regulations, and failure to comply with these regulations could lead to significant fines and legal costs.

5C Analysis

The 5C Analysis is a marketing framework that can be used to provide insight into the key drivers of success, as well as the risk exposure to various environmental factors.
This (concise) 5C analysis examines the external and internal environment for Alcoa. It includes analysing the company's customers, competitors, collaborators, context, and capabilities. We have produced this short analysis to identify potential opportunities and threats to Alcoa, as well as areas where the company needs to improve its operations or strategy.
Company: Alcoa is a global leader in lightweight metals engineering and manufacturing, with operations in 30 countries and customers in nearly every country in the world. Alcoa produces and sells a wide range of aluminum, titanium, and nickel products, as well as fabricated parts and components.

Collaborators: Alcoa partners with a wide range of other companies, including aerospace and automotive manufacturers, energy companies, and chemical companies. Alcoa works with these partners to develop and produce innovative products that meet customer needs.

Customers: Alcoa’s customers include many of the world’s leading companies in the aerospace, automotive, industrial, chemical, and energy industries. Alcoa also serves customers in the transportation, construction, and consumer products sectors.

Competitors: Alcoa competes with other leading aluminum producers, such as Rio Tinto, BHP Billiton, and Novelis. Alcoa also competes with companies that produce and sell steel, titanium, and nickel products.

Content: Alcoa continuously develops new products and services that meet customer needs. The company is also a leader in research and development, and is focused on developing innovative technologies that reduce energy consumption and increase efficiency. Alcoa also produces content such as articles, videos, and webinars to educate consumers and businesses about the benefits of using lightweight metals.
5C Analysis

MOST Analysis

MOST Analysis

The MOST analysis framework is commonly used to identify an organisation's strategic goals, assess its strengths and weaknesses, and develop a plan to achieve its objectives. This analysis helps organisations to focus on what they want to achieve and how to achieve it, while also identifying potential roadblocks or obstacles that may arise along the way.

  • Mission
  • Objectives
  • Strategy
  • Tactics

We have created this analysis from a 3rd person perspective.

Innovation Scorecard

As part of our research and analysis activity, the team at Platform Executive assesses and then benchmarks businesses and the industry verticals in which they operate using a proprietary scoring mechanism.

First, we allocate a score of A-E for the industry vertical, gauged on the key organisations operating within the space; and then score the individual business using a 1-5 score.

A score of D-E within an industry means that it is potentially ripe to be disrupted by a new entrant into the marketplace; and/or vulnerable to technological change.

Likewise, a high score of 4-5 for the company in question indicates that in the view of the analysis team it lags behind notable businesses in terms of innovation and product pipeline.

Innovation Scorecard

Below is a guide to each score:

Industry score:

A The industry is amongst the most innovative; with the leading players all driving the sector forward.
Example industry: PaaS
B The industry and its leading players have a good track record of innovation; and can quickly react to change.
Example industry: Pharmaceutical
C Companies operating within the sector have adequate levels of innovation; and engage in R&D activities when appropriate.
Example industry: FMCG
DBusinesses operating in the industry do not invest enough time and resource into innovation. The sector is stagnant and a good candidate for disruption.
Example industry: Retail Banking
E The major players in the sector seem to lack suitable product development roadmaps; and as a result the sector is highly vulnerable to industry change.
Example industry: Publishing


Company score:

1 The business is amongst the leading players in terms innovation and product pipeline. This will fulfil and reinforce the operations of the business in the medium to long-term.
2 The business has a good track record of innovation, in terms of its products and/or its business model. It is therefore more likely to be able to react and adapt to any changes to the industry.
3 The business is deemed to have an adequate innovation plan, build on research and development and sustainability where appropriate. The business has a product development strategy.
4The business needs to invest more resource and/or intellectual capital in product development, pipelines and/or its business model. The business is at risk of stagnation.
5 The business seems to lack a suitable product development roadmap; and as a result is vulnerable to any notable industry change and/or new entrants in the marketplace.
The team at Platform Executive has judged Alcoa as having an innovation score of C2.


The appendices section of this report contains supplementary information that the team at Platform Executive deems helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the report's contents.

This information is not considered an essential part of the study but serves as a useful supplement to the main text.


This study on Alcoa forms part of our series of competitive intelligence reports, which focuses on 10,000 of the largest corporates.

The information and data included are updated on a timely schedule to ensure that our Premium members receive the most up to date information .

The report is based on information and learning from the following sources:

  • Corporate websites
  • Proprietary research databases
  • SEC Filings
  • Corporate press releases
  • News articles
  • Financial data API's
  • Product-matching algorithm

Further Information

Premium members: If you cannot find the desired information or data set for the business you are researching then please reach out to our research and analysis team. We can tailor reports to meet your requiremnents, with a fast turnaround time.

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Reproduction of the content produced in this report is prohibited without the prior permission of the publisher, Platform Executive Pty Ltd.

The facts of this report have been gathered in good faith from both primary and secondary sources. It is believed to be correct at the time of publication, but cannot be guaranteed. As such Platform Executive can accept no liability whatever for actions taken based on any information that may subsequently prove to be incorrect.


Premium members: To request a priority update to this report, please contact us. Our standard turnaround time is normally 48 hours.

The changelog for this report can be found below, complete with the next scheduled update:

v1.1: Initial load of report
Date: 1st March 2023

Key Financials added (BETA)
Date: 17th March 2023

Next scheduled update: 13th June 2023

Industry Keywords

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